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Library

2021

Low Doses of LSD Acutely Increase BDNF Blood Plasma Levels in Healthy Volunteers

By: Nadia R. P. W. Hutten, Natasha L. Mason, Patrick C. Dolder, Eef L. Theunissen, Friederike Holze, Matthias E. Liechti, Nimmy Varghese, Anne Eckert, Amanda Feilding, Johannes G. Ramaekers, and Kim P. C. Kuypers*

2020

Preliminary Report on the Effects of a Low Dose of LSD on Resting-State Amygdala Functional Connectivity

By: Anya K Bershad, Katrin H Preller, Royce Lee, Sarah Keedy, Jamie Wren-Jarvis, Michael P Bremmer, Harriet de Wit 

Psychedelic Focus:
LSD

Result: 
A very low dose of LSD, which produces negligible subjective changes, alters brain connectivity in limbic circuits. Additional studies, especially with repeated dosing, will reveal whether these neural changes are related to the drug's purported antidepressant effect.
Result:

2019

Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor: A Key Molecule for Memory in the Healthy and the Pathological Brain

By: Magdalena Miranda, Juan Facundo Morici, Maria Belen Zanoni, Pedo Bekinschtein

Psychedelic Focus:
N/A

Result: 
Although BDNF is a key player in synaptic plasticity and memory process, its role in the etiology of cognitive symptoms in pathological conditions remains unclear. In humans, the relationship between memory and BDNF still remains correlational, mainly because the available techniques do not allow the control of BDNF expression in humans.
Result:

2022

Towards an understanding of psychedelic-induced
neuroplasticity

By: Abigail E. Calder and Gregor Hasler

Psychedelic Focus:
Classic psychedelics, such as LSD, psilocybin, and the DMT-containing beverage ayahuasca.

Result: 
Data thus far supports the theory that psychedelics stimulate dendritogenesis, synaptogen- esis, and the upregulation of plasticity-related genes in a 5-HT2A receptor-dependent manner, affecting the cortex in particular. The window of neuroplasticity appears to open within a few hours and may last a few days, although neuroplastic changes occurring during this time may survive for at least a month. Because neuroplastic changes occur in an experience-dependent manner, experiences people have during this time may have a greater psychological impact than they otherwise would.
Result:

2021

Self-blinding citizen science to explorepsychedelic microdosing

By: Balázs Szigeti1, Laura Kartner, Allan Blemings, Fernando Rosas, Amanda Feilding, David J Nutt, Robin L Carhart-Harris, David Erritzoe

Psychedelic Focus:
LSD, Psilocybin

Result: 
The findings suggest that anecdotal benefits of microdosing can be explained by the placebo effect.

Result:

2019

Psychedelic microdosing benefits and challenges: an empirical codebook

Thomas Anderson, Rotem Petranker, Adam Christopher, Daniel Rosenbaum, Cory Weissman,Le-Anh Dinh-Williams, Katrina Hui and Emma Hapke

Psychedelic Focus:
LSD, Psilocybin

Result: 
We probe for substance-dependent differences, finding that psilocybin-only users report the benefits of microdosing were more important than other users report.Result:

2021

A systematic study of microdosing psychedelics

By: VincePolitoI, Richard J. Stevenson

Psychedelic Focus:
LSD, psilocybin, Mescaline, 4-HO-MET, DOB, 2C-C, 2C-D, 2C-E, LSA

Result: 
These findings highlight the need for further research into the full range of microdosing effects (positive and negative) and also for investigations into subtypes of individuals who may particularly benefit from or be adverse to the practice
Result:

2020

The therapeutic potential of microdosing psychedelics in depression

By: Kim P.C. Kuypers

Psychedelic Focus:
LSD, psilocybin

Result: 
It is too early to draw conclusions about its therapeutic efficacy. Nevertheless, these preliminary findings warrant the exploration of the safety and therapeutic efficacy of microdosing psychedelics for depression.
Result:

2019

Motives and Side-Effects of Microdosing With Psychedelics Among Users

By: Nadia R P W Hutten, Natasha L Mason, Patrick C Dolder, and Kim P C Kuypers

Psychedelic Focus:
LSD, psilocybin

Result: 
Negative effects occurred mostly acutely after substance consumption. However, the main reason to have stopped microdosingwas that it was not effective.
Result:

2022

Psilocybin microdosers demonstrate greater observed improvements in mood and mental health at one month relative to non-microdosing controls

By: Joseph M. Rootman, Maggie Kiraga, Pamela Kryskow, Kalin Harvey, Paul Stamets, Eesmyal Santos-Brault, Kim P. C. Kuypers & Zach Walsh

Psychedelic Focus:
Psilocybin

Result: 
that combining psilocybin with HE and B3 did not impact changes in mood and mental health. However, among older microdosers combining psilocybin, HE and B3 was associated with psychomotor improvements relative to psilocybin alone and psilocybin and HE.
Result:

2018

The effects of microdose LSD on time perception: a randomised,double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

By: Steliana Yanakieva, Naya Polychroni, Neiloufar Family, Luke T J Williams, David P Luke, Devin B Terhune

Psychedelic Focus:
LSD

Result: 
Microdose LSD produces temporal dilation of suprasecond intervals in the absence of subjective alterations of consciousness.
Result:

2019

Self-Rated Effectiveness of Microdosing With Psychedelics for Mental and Physical Health Problems Among Microdosers

By: Nadia Hutten, Natasha Mason, Patrick Dodler, Kim Kuypers

Psychedelic Focus:
Psychedelics

Result: 
This study demonstrates that SRE of MDP to alleviate symptoms of a range of mental or physiological diagnoses is higher compared to conventionally offered treatment options, and lower than regular ('full') psychedelic doses.
Result:

2022

Natural language signatures of psilocybin microdosing

By: Camila Sanz, Federico Cavanna, Stephanie Muller, Laura de la Fuente, Federico Zamberlan, Matías Palmucci, Lucie Janeckova, Martin Kuchar, Facundo Carrillo, Adolfo M García, Carla Pallavicini, Enzo Tagliazucchi

Psychedelic Focus:
Serotonergic psychedelics and psilocybin

Result: 
These results constitute first evidence that low doses of serotonergic psychedelics can be identified from unconstrained natural speech, with potential for widely applicable, affordable, and ecologically valid monitoring of microdosing schedules.
Result:

2022

Repeated low doses of LSD in healthy adults: A placebo-controlled, dose-response study

By: Harriet de Wit, Hanna M Molla, Anya Bershad, Michael Bremmer, Royce Lee

Psychedelic Focus:
LSD

Result: 
We conclude that within the context of a controlled setting and a limited number of administrations, repeated low doses of LSD are safe, but produce negligible changes in mood or cognition in healthy volunteers
Result:

2022

The emerging science of microdosing: A systematic review of research on low dose psychedelics (1955-2021) and recommendations for the field

By: Vince Polito, Paul Liknaitzky

Psychedelic Focus:
LSD, psilocybin

Result: 
We review data related to expectation and placebo effects, but argue that claims that microdosing effects are largely due to expectancy are premature and possibly wrong.
Result:

2021

Positive expectations predict improved mental-health outcomes linked to psychedelic microdosing

By: L. S. Kaertner, M. B. Steinborn, H. Kettner, M. J. Spriggs, L. Roseman, T. Buchborn, M. Balaet, C. Timmermann, D. Erritzoe & R. L. Carhart-Harris

Psychedelic Focus:
psilocybin, LSD/1P-LSD, ayahuasca, DMT/5-MeO-DMT, salvia divinorum, mescaline, or iboga/ibogaine

Result: 
In conclusion, the present study provides the first demonstration of the role of positive expectancy in mediating positive mental health outcomes associated with psychedelic microdosing, thus highlighting the need for caution in making claims about the therapeutic value of this practice.
Result:

2019

Acute Subjective and Behavioral Effects of Microdoses of Lysergic Acid Diethylamide in Healthy Human Volunteers

By: Anya K Bershad, Scott T Schepers, Michael P Bremmer, Royce Lee, Harriet de Wit 

Psychedelic Focus:
LSD

Result: 
Single microdoses of LSD produced orderly dose-related subjective effects in healthy volunteers. These findings indicate that a threshold dose of 13 μg of LSD might be used safely in an investigation of repeated administrations. It remains to be determined whether the drug improves mood or cognition in individuals with symptoms of depression.
Result:

2020

Preliminary Report on the Effects of a Low Dose of LSD on Resting-State Amygdala Functional Connectivity

By: Anya K Bershad, Katrin H Preller, Royce Lee, Sarah Keedy, Jamie Wren-Jarvis, Michael P Bremmer, Harriet de Wit 

Psychedelic Focus:
LSD

Result: 
A very low dose of LSD, which produces negligible subjective changes, alters brain connectivity in limbic circuits. Additional studies, especially with repeated dosing, will reveal whether these neural changes are related to the drug's purported antidepressant effect.
Result:

2019

Microdosing psychedelics: More questions than answers? An overview and suggestions for future research

By: Kim PC Kuypers, Livia Ng, David Erritzoe, Gitte M Knudsen, Charles D Nichols, David E Nichols, Luca Pani, Anaïs Soula, David Nutt

Psychedelic Focus:
Critique of microdosing

Result: 
To that end, (pre)clinical studies including biological (e.g. heart rate, receptor turnover and occupancy) as well as cognitive (e.g. memory, attention) parameters have to be conducted and will shed light on the potential negative consequences microdosing could have.
Result:

2010

Microdosing: concept, application and relevance

By: Tushar Tewari, Shoibal Mukherjee

Psychedelic Focus:
The use of microdose pharmacokinetic studies as an essential tool in drug development is still to catch on. While this approach promises potential cost savings and a quantum leap in efficiencies of the drug development process, major hurdles still need to be overcome before the technique becomes commonplace and part of routine practice.

Result: 
The lack of enabling provisions for microdosingstudies in Indian regulation, despite low risk and manifest relevance for the local drug development industry, isinconsistent with the country’s aspirations to be among the leaders in pharmaceutical research.
Result:

2019

Microdosing psychedelics: personality, mental health, and creativity differences in microdosers

By:Thomas Anderson, Rotem Petranker, Daniel Rosenbaum, Cory R Weissman, Le-Anh Dinh-Williams, Katrina Hui, Emma Hapke, Norman A S Farb 

Psychedelic Focus:
LSD; aimed to investigate whether microdosing psychedelics is related to differences in personality, mental health, and creativity.

Result: 
These findings provide promising initial evidence that warrants controlled experimental research to directly test safety and clinical efficacy.
Result:

2021

Adults who microdose psychedelics report health related motivations and lower levels of anxiety and depression compared to non-microdosers

By: Joseph M. Rootman, Pamela Kryskow, Kalin Harvey, Paul Stamets, Eesmyal Santos-Brault, Kim P. C. Kuypers, Vince Polito, Francoise Bourzat & Zach Walsh

Psychedelic Focus:
LSD, Psilocybin

Result: 
Lower levels of anxiety and depression among microdosers relative to controls. We also identified a diversity of microdosing practices with substantial variations in dose, frequency and use of combinations of psychedelic and non-psychedelic substances (i.e., stacking). Future research is warranted to better determine the impact of these distinct practices
Result:

2022

Psilocybin microdosers demonstrate greater observed improvements in mood and mental health at one month relative to non-microdosing controls

By: Joseph M. Rootman, Maggie Kiraga, Pamela Kryskow, Kalin Harvey, Paul Stamets, Eesmyal Santos-Brault, Kim P. C. Kuypers & Zach Walsh

Psychedelic Focus:
Psilocybin

Result: 
Combining psilocybin with HE and B3 did not impact changes in mood and mental health. However, among older microdosers combining psilocybin, HE and B3 was associated with psychomotor improvements relative to psilocybin alone and psilocybin and HE. Our findings of mood and mental health improvements associated with psilocybin microdosing add to previous studies of psychedelic microdosing by using a comparator group and by examining the consistency of effects across age, gender, and mental health.
Result: